FAQ Solar

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS


Are solar farms environmentally friendly?

Assessing solar farm installation is collaborated with Public Authorities, Environmental Agency and a permit is given with respect to the related regulations. Environmental Impact Assessment EIA must be assessed for the stages of installation operation and demolition of the site. The criteria for assessing IEA include the rejection of possible installation close to special protected areas (SPA), or historical significance areas. The installation process is in compliance with occupational safety health and environment (SHE) regulations, while the demolition process ensures the possibility of re-use of the land for any activities if there`s no re-power (substitute the old modules with new ones) possibility.


Are there any GHG emissions related to PV operation?

During the operation of a solar park there`s no GHG emission. Solar PV is a zero-emission renewable energy technology.


Are there any GHG emissions embeded within PV operation?

There is no GHG emissions during the operation of solar panels. The CO2 emissions embedded are related to materials compositions, and panel manufacturing which is between 36-90g CO2/kWh relatively low compared to natural gas (272-90718g CO2/kWh). However the toxic substances CFC`s HFC`s that are used for PV manufacture raise safety-health concerns and so during the PV manufacture occupational safety health and environment regulations must be taken into account.


What is the impacts on land use related to solar PV farm operation?

Installing solar PV, effect the local flora, native vegetation and local biodiversity. However land use is the land owner`s privilege, solar farm area can be used for sheep grazing purposes only which benefits in dual agricultural and electricity generation and ground maintenance.


What is the impact on animal life related to PV operation?

No impact is expected to the local animal life.


Are there any noise odour impacts related to PV operation?

Solar PV produces no noise or odour


ECONOMIC IMPACTS


Are there advantages for the local communities?

We are investing for local authorities beneficial throughout our projects. Maintenance inspections viewing patrol can be supported by local unemployed habitants with no need of technical knowledge, while for technical maintenance requirements we prioritise in local technicians. Local authorities can benefit from the local tax income issued in Germany or Poland while in countries that there is no local tax regulations, we fund the local authorities for social purposes.


Is solar PV good for the economy?

EIAA states that solar industry created 100,000 jobs so far.


Is solar PV an expensive technology?

While fossil fuel prices increased per Wh of energy production, solar energy production has more than quartered in the past decade.


How can i determine my income before investing in PV?

The perfect tool for determining your income PVGIS, the ingenious tool for your earnings forecast. Here you will get a quick and easy overview of the possibilities that offers PVGIS, and you will be able to create your own earnings forecasts in no time. Take half an hour and give you all the relevant data in a PVGIS


TECHNICAL ASPECTS


What is solar irradiance?

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area in the form of electromagnetic radiation that the sun emits towards earth`s surface. Solar irradiance varies significantly globally whereas the maximum irradiance exists close to the equator.


How does a PV work?

A PV module includes parallel arrays of PV cells. The solar irradiance is first absorbed by the silicon based cell where the absorbed energy is transformed to usable energy and then through the inverter DC current turns to AC. The power is transmitted to the grid through the transformer. A meter reads the produced, imported and exported from the grid electricity.


What kinds of PV are commercially available today?

-Polycrystalline silicon with 12-14% efficiency -Monocrystalline silicon with 14-20% efficiency -Amorphous silicon with 10% efficiency


What is a HotSpot?

Overheating of a region of a solar cell module due to unequal incidence of light” causing operation failure of the module. This can be solved using a by-pass diode. If a PV is not operating, the failure effects the whole row and is limited to the row thanks to bypass diode that exists in every PV row.


How do we clean the modules? What are the yield losses of dirty modules?

In angles more than 20 degrees the modules are self-cleaning effect from wind or rain. Normally simple rainwater is enough to remove the dirt concentrated on the module`s surface area. However in cases like bird dropping a monitoring might be required. Cleaning companies suggest the use of demineralized ultrapure water, with highly professional cleaning utensils such as telescopic rods of glass or carbon fiber resulting to outstanding cleaning results. Dirty modules can result in yield losses slightly more than 1-2%.


How do we remove the snow?

If the snow does not naturally melts within the next days there are several commercially available snow removal techniques. If the modules are grounded just by removing the snow in the ground, the snow on the modules will naturally fall from the surface due to natural hot wind circulation that takes place behind the modules. An artificial hot ventilation system is enough to remove thick layers of snow.


What is a HotSpot?

Overheating of a region of a solar cell module due to unequal incidence of light” causing operation failure of the module. This can be solved using a by-pass diode. If a PV is not operating, the failure effects the whole row and is limited to the row thanks to bypass diode that exists in every PV row.


How do i use PVGIS ?

After chosing your place on the map you have to enter : Nominal power of the PV system : Peak power of your photovoltaic panels Battery size : voltage and capacity Discharge cutoff limit (%) : minimal % level of discharge of your battery Enter daily electricity consumption : consumption of your electrical appliances during a whole day. Optional hourly consumption file : the uploaded file should consist of 24 hourly values, each on its own line, with the sum of the numbers equal to 1. Inclination of modules : slope of your solar panels Orientation of modules : Orientation (azimut or direction) of your solar panels 1.Top left in the input field, the address is entered and clicked the “Search” button. Zoom now as close to your address and if necessary, correct the location. 2. Irradiation database.Here you can make the choice between “Classic PVGIS” and the recent “Climate-SAF PVGIS” 3. FV Tools.Here you can select whether it is crystalline, ie polycrystalline or monocrystalline modules, CIS, CdTe and other thin-film modules. 4. Installed FV-performance. Here it is advisable to always enter 1 kWp, then you always get the earnings forecast converted to 1 kWp and can better compare with other installations or location data. 5. Estimated system losses. A 0.1 or 10% is adequaate. 6.Mounting options. Here the specification of the mounting modules is required. If it is roof installation or ground mounting. 7. Inclination (0-90). Slope or elevation of the module. 8. Tilt optimize. Should only be activated if you want to know the optimum inclination for the location you entered. 9.Azimuth [-180, 180] (module orientation) where: • 0 ° = South • -90 ° = East • 90 ° = West 10.Tracking Options (options for tracking systems) 11. Show horizon.PVGIS not only has the irradiation data in the database, but also the topographical data