1.How much power can be generated in one day? How many houses can this provide power to?
This varies according to the size of the generators, the height, and the water flow availability. However the maximum power that could be generated are 8400kWh/day (350kW * 24) to 19320000kWh/day (805000kW * 24). The average size of generators is about 76000kW resulting to an average maximum production of 1.82MWh/day. Assuming the average household uses about 1000kWh electricity/ month this average unit could supply power to 50000 houses. Since hydropower is dependent on water load which is not always constant, the actual production varies each year from 25% to 45% of the maximum rated output due to water availability.
2.How much more power can be produced from a RETRO-FIT?
RETRO-FIT is refurbishing old projects. If a turbine is pre-1960 turbines, the power output increases as high as 30% + 5% of replacing existing runners.
3.What is the difference between small-scale and large-scale hydropower projects?
Micro-hydropower, usually run-off river, has normally a rated capacity of 300kW or less. The limit is based on the off-grid limit, where this project can be a stand alone project not connected to the grid. The large-scale projects usually have the capacity of 10-50MW.
4.How many different types of hydro turbines exist?
Based on the turbine`s operational system there are the reaction type and impulse type systems. A reaction type operates with its runner fully flooded and blades are rotated as a reaction to the water pressure created against the blades of the turbine. An impulse turbine operates with its runner on the air where a jet shoots water on the runner, developing kinetic energy, rotating the blades. Based on the head size: Francis turbine is a reaction=type turbine with operating heads ranging from 15-600meters. Kaplan turbine is the most common propeller turbine operating to heads of 2-40meters Pelton turbine is mainly used for operating heads above 150m.
5.What is hydropower impact on on reducing GHG emissions?
Hydroelectric fuel is water which is clean, renewable and zero-emission fuel.
6.How does hydropower industry protect natural resources?
Hydropower invests on maintaining the mico-biodiversity and fish eco systems of the area of interest. With collaboration with NGO organisations and the Environmental Agencies for protecting the aquatic species.
1.Are there environmental effects associated with marine renewables?
There are raising concerns of interferences with fish migration interference and lubricant oils release in both wave and tidal technologies but while at experimental stage researches are being developed to minimize such impacts.
2.How do I select the appropriate tidal turbine?
The selectivity of the turbine depends on the speed or velocity of the water, depth of the flowing water the geology of the sea or river bed.
3.How much is the maximum hours of generating?
The tidal power can generate maximum 10 hrs each day, however tides are highly predictable.
4.Is tidal a renewable energy?
Tidal energy is renewable. The tides will continue to ebb and flow at predictable times of year.
1.What are the benefits of wave energy compared to other energy sources?
One of the benefits is the energy density. Water becomes 800 times denser than air that means huge amount of energy can be deploited per area. It`s much more predictable compared to wind energy. And in some coastlines (Australia) can be available 24/7.
2.What are the methods for converting wave energy to electricity?
There are three basic methods: Float or buoy systems that use the rise and fall of ocean swells to drive hydraulic pumps. Oscillating water column devices placed at the shore where a column is utilizing the compressed air created to rotate a turbine. Tapered channel where a channel is placed on shore concentrating the waves and driving them to an elevated reservoir, and hydropower technology is applied to the water flowing out of the reservoir.
3.Why wave energy?
Project risk reduction since it is a steady and predictable power source. Wave energy contains 1000 times the kinetic energy of wind Even if wind speed is low power from ocean waves is continuously been generated Wave energy varies as the square of wave height whereas wind power varies with the cube of air speed, therefore is more controllable power production Not existing noise level and visually obtrusive. Potential resource is more stable and easy to measure Less area requirements.
4.Can they still operate at bad weather conditions?
After the annual conditions of the location of interest are obtained, a sophisticated shear stress test is being held not only for the raw materials but simulating the worst weather conditions for the installation part.
5.What are the effects on fishermen in the area?
Tests are shown that buoys are fish attracting devices and so along with the operation artificial reefs can be created.